One-time NASCAR Cup Series champion Brad Keselowski says Toyota's dominance in the 2017 season was "like Formula 1".
Toyota made a surprise introduction of a new Camry for this season with an eye to improving aerodynamic performance, while Ford made small tweaks and Chevrolet has not produced a major update to its SS since the Gen-6 rule change in 2013.
Martin Truex Jr led the way for Toyota, heading the championship for most of the season and clinching a first title for himself and Furniture Row Racing with victory at Homestead on Sunday.
Toyota won 16 Cup races to Chevrolet and Ford's 10 each.
Keselowski said the Camry's potential dominance was clear the moment the car was launched.
"When that car rolled out at Daytona, and we all got to see it for the first time, there were two reactions: one, we couldn't believe NASCAR approved it, and two we were impressed by the design team," said Keselowski.
"That said, I don't think anybody really ever had a shot this year the second that thing got approved and put on the racetrack.
"It kind of felt like Formula 1 where you have one car that makes it through the gates heads and tails above everyone, and your hands are tied because you're not allowed to do anything to the cars, to catch up, which NASCAR approves."
Keselowski's Penske team uses the Ford Fusion body, a 2016 chassis that has not been updated since and is set to be used again next season.
Chevrolet, which failed to field a car in the final four championship shootout, will change its chassis to a Camaro ZL1 from the Chevrolet SS in 2018.
"As to what will happen for 2018, I don't know," said Keselowski.
"I would assume Chevrolet will be allowed to design a car in the same way that Toyota had, but Ford doesn't have any current plans for that.
"If that's the case, we're going to take a drubbing next year, so we'll have to see."
Keselowski still praised Truex and the small Furniture Row team's performance over the season.
"I think Martin has always been a pretty good driver. I don't think he's really changed," said Keselowski.
"He's certainly in some great equipment, I think he'd probably tell you that, but he's still beating the other Toyotas, so he deserves credit for that.
"He's got a good group over there. Barney Visser, who runs that team, probably doesn't get enough credit because he's come in and kind of schooled some of these owners about what it takes to win this series.
"He's put Martin in a great situation and Martin has made the most of it, so he deserves a lot of credit."